Feminism is largely opposed to any simple or universal definition. In general, feminists take the experience of women seriously, as well as the impact of theories and practices on women`s lives. Given the pervasive influence of contract theory on social, political and moral philosophy, it is therefore not surprising that feminists have much to say about whether treaty theory is appropriate or appropriate from the point of view of women`s seriousness. To question all feminist responses to the theory of the social contract would take us far beyond the limits of this article. I will therefore focus only on three of these arguments: Carole Pateman`s reasoning on the relationship between the contract and the subordination of women between men, feminist arguments about the nature of the liberal individual and the argument of care. Carole Pateman`s 1988 book, The Sexual Contract, argues that extending under the myth of the idealized contract described by Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau is a more fundamental contract on the relationship between men and women. Contract theory presents itself as an adversary of patriarchy and patriarchal law. (Locke`s social contract, for example, is put by him in opposition to the work of Robert Filmer, who argued for patriarchal power.) But the “pact of origin” (2), which precedes the social contract on an equal footing, is the agreement of men to dominate and control women. This “pact of origin” is concluded by brothers, literally or metaphorically, who, after the fall of the Father`s reign, agree to share their domination over women who were previously under the exclusive control of a man, the Father. The transition from “classical patriarchy” (24) to modern patriarchy is therefore a change that has power over women.
However, the question of whether women are dominated by men is not a fundamental change. Men`s power relations with each other change, but the relationship between women and the power of men does not change. Modern patriarchy is characterized by a contractual relationship between men, and part of this treaty involves power over women. This fact that one form of patriarchy was not completely reversed, but was replaced by another form in which male power was distributed among more men instead of being held by a man, is illustrated by Freud`s story about the birth of civilization. After this story, a gang of brothers, run by a father who kept exclusive sexual access to the women of the tribe, kill the father, and then form a contract between them to be equal and share the women. This is the story, whether we understand Freud`s history as historically correct or not, of modern patriarchy and its deep dependence on the treaty as the means by which men control and dominate women. The signalling model is when a party knows the client and appropriately communicates the characteristics of itself. In the economy, signage involves the transfer of information from one party to another. The purpose of this transfer is to obtain mutual satisfaction for a particular contract or agreement. It is perhaps not surprising that the revival of contemporary contact theory took place at the same time as the tools of game theory and especially the theory of negotiation were applied to philosophical problems. Negotiation theory, as developed by John Nash (1950) and John Harsanyi (1977), is a rigorous approach to modelling how rational individuals would agree to share something good or surplus. In its most general form, the negotiating model of the agreement defines a number of people who have individual utility functions that can be represented in relation to others, without the need to directly compare the benefits between individuals.